germanium from the first application of czochralski crystal patent us8058692

Jan Czochralski and His Method of Crystal Growth Sil ...

After invention of germaniumbased transistor in 1947, Gordon K. Teal from Bell Laboratory used the Czochralski method to obtain germanium single crystals. The first single crystal of germanium was obtained in 1948 and the results were presented at the Oak Ridge Meeting of the American Physical Society in 1950, and were reported in Teal ...

Polycrystalline semiconductor patent application class

Class / Patent application number Description Number of patent applications / Date published; 438488000: Polycrystalline semiconductor : 68: 20110014782: Apparatus and Method for Growing a Microcrystalline Silicon Film Disclosed is a method for growing a microcrystalline silicon film on a substrate. The method includes the step of disposing ...

Germanium Doped Czochralski Silicon InTech Open

Germanium Doped Czochralski Silicon Jiahe Chen and Deren Yang ... suppress the formation of crystal originated part icles (COPs) related to void defects, which ... based on our recent work, and two preliminary applications of GCZ silicon wafers will be shown as examples. 2. Mechanical strength

A brief history of ... semiconductors IOPscience

A brief history of ... semiconductors. Tudor Jenkins. Physics Education, Volume 40, Number 5. Download Article PDF. Figures. ... Bose J C 1901 Detector for electrical disturbances US Patent 755840, application filed September 1901 ... Czochralski J 1918 Measuring the velocity of crystallisation of metals Z. Phys. Chem. 92 21921 .

Germanium: environmental occurrence, importance and ...

Depuydt B, Theuwis A, Romandi I (2006) Germanium: from the first application of Czochralski crystal growth to large diameter dislocationfree wafers. Mater Sci Semicond Process 9:437–443. doi: / Google Scholar

Double crucible crystal growing process Free Patents Online

Jan 20, 1981· Double crucible crystal growing process ... FIG. 2 is a partial crosssectional view of a floating crucible Czochralski crystal growing apparatus in accordance with the instant invention; ... germanium silicon). The first melt 16 within the inner crucible 14 has a first dopant concentration level and the second melt 17 has a second ...

Electromigration process for the purification of molten ...

May 18, 1982· The process has particular applications for silicon crystal growth ... Electromigration process for the purification of molten silicon during crystal growth . United States Patent 4330359 . Abstract: ... In the Czochralski crystal growing process, the impurities are electromigrated away from the crystallization interface by applying ...

Improved Czochralski Growth of Germanium Single Crystals ...

Improved Czochralski Growth of Germanium Single Crystals ... 233 Fig. 3. Photographs (a) during crystal growth from melt fully covered by B 2O 3, and (b) of a grown crystal. the crystal surface, but the surface was very clean.

Where did the first seed crystal for performing the ...

Where did the first seed crystal for performing the Czochralski process come from? ... Then you can cut a singlecrystal region from the boule and make a seed crystal from that singlecrystal region. Czochralski method has been under development for many decades and many techniques have been developed to encourage singlecrystal and low ...

(PDF) Production of germanium stable isotopes single crystals

Single crystals of germanium isotopes were grown by Czochralski method. ... monoisotopic single crystal (3). Application of the above ... the first pulsed electron spin resonance measurements of ...

MilestoneProposal:Czochralski IEEE Milestones Wiki

MilestoneProposal:Czochralski. To see comments, or add a comment to this ... The method of monocristalline silicon growth for large scale industry application started some 30 year later after the method was invented. ... The first single crystal of germanium was obtained in 1948 and the results were presented at the Oak Ridge Meeting of the ...

Crystal Puller of Czochralski Type for Germanium ... infringement of patent or other rights of third parties which may result from the use of circuits, systems and processes described or referred to ... Fig. 5 — Rate grown germanium crystal s. Data (a) One lot of material was pulled successively four times. The resulting two final crystals ...

US Patent Application for Systems, Methods and Substrates ...

Justia Patents Including Change In A Growthinfluencing Parameter (, Composition, Temperature, Concentration, Flow Rate) During Growth (, Multilayer Or Junction Or Superlattice Growing) US Patent Application for Systems, Methods and Substrates of Monocrystalline Germanium Crystal Growth Patent Application (Application 20100116196)

Germanium: From the first application of Czochralski ...

Germanium: From the first application of Czochralski crystal growth to large diameter dislocationfree wafers 7 Pages Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, 2006

Jan Czochralski—father of the Czochralski method | Paweł ...

There is also a significant paper by Czochralski While Teal and Little pulled their first single himself published in 1925 [8] on metals science and crystal of germanium on 1 October 1948 [20], the physical research (presented at the International first information about their method was provided Tomaszewski / Journal of Crystal Growth 236 ...

Jan Czochralski—father of the Czochralski method ...

The first crystal pulling experiments ... While Teal and Little pulled their first single crystal of germanium on 1 October 1948 ... In November 2000 the first “Jan Czochralski Golden Medal” was awarded by the European Materials Research Society to Dr. Paul Siffert from Strasbourg for his “outstanding achievements in materials science”.

Umicore | Contributions ResearchGate

Patent: Method for producing ... Germanium: From the first application of Czochralski crystal growth to ... Simulation of intrinsic point defect properties and vacancy clustering during ...

Some electrical properties of amorphous germanium, indium ...

Attempts were made to grow alloy crystals of Ga{sub 1{minus}x}In{sub x}Sb by the conventional Czochralski process. A transparent furnace was used, with hydrogen purging through the chamber during crystal growth.

US6498288B1 Silicon germanium crystal Google Patents

US6498288B1 Silicon germanium crystal Google Patents Silicon germanium crystal Download PDF Info ... Czochralski method. C ... US09582237 19981126 19991105 Silicon germanium crystal Expired Fee Related US6498288B1 (en)

Methods of Producing Synthetic Alexandrite

Methods of Producing Synthetic Alexandrite. ... used this method to grow single germanium crystals which later led to their large scale production for semi conductor applications. Today the Czochralski pulledgrowth method is used to ... This method is similar to the Czochralski method, but the crystal is pulled horizontally instead of ...

Robert Rapp Receives 2003 Educator Award

crystal germanium and silicon would be substantially better ... Czochralski did not use a singlecrystal seed, however, and ... Teal filed for a pn junction patent in singlecrystal germanium in 1950. The first bipolar junction transistor (npn) was achieved in single crystal germanium (grown ...

History of Telefunken Transistor History Google Sites

History of Telefunken. ... The following year, I applied for a patent on crystal diodes with electrolytic contacts, and later I sought one on crystal duodiodes for centimeterwavelength mixers. Eventually, better crystal material became available. ... Adam C 2011 The First Germanium Semiconductors: ...

Germanium Wafers: 2017

New GermaniumBased Material Could Replace Silicon for Electronic The old adage “what goes around comes around” is now being applied in electronics. Before silicon ruled the roost as the electronics material of choice, the first transistors were fashioned out of germanium.

Monocrystalline silicon WikiVisually

The primary application of monocrystalline silicon is as mechanical support for integrated circuits. ... Jacobi disclosed small and cheap hearing aids as typical industrial applications of his patent, an immediate commercial use of his patent has not been reported. ... Silicon crystal being grown by Czochralski process at Raytheon, 1956. The ...

Jan Czochralski

Jan 01, 2003· The Czochralski process is a method of crystal growth used to obtain single crystals of semiconductors ( silicon , germanium and gallium arsenide ), metals ( palladium , platinum , silver , gold ), salts and synthetic gemstones .

Czochralski process Revolvy

Jan 07, 2003· The Czochralski process is a method of crystal growth used to obtain single crystals of semiconductors ( silicon , germanium and gallium arsenide ), metals ( palladium , platinum , silver , gold ), salts and synthetic gemstones .

History of Transistors in France Transistor History

In 1946 Westinghouse proposed to the Government that work begin on germanium and silicon crystal detectors covering raw materials, semiconductor production, purification, detector and their characteristics. ... made the first monocrystalline germanium. ... Mercier was working on germanium purification using the Czochralski method of drawing a ...

Germanium: From the first application of Czochralski ...

Germanium: From the first application of Czochralski crystal growth to large diameter dislocationfree wafers Article in Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing 9(4):437443 · August 2006 ...

US Patent for Systems, methods and substrates of ...

Justia Patents Growth Confined By A Solid Member Other Than Seed Or Product (, Bridgmanstockbarger Method) US Patent for Systems, methods and substrates of monocrystalline germanium crystal growth Patent (Patent 8,506,706)

US10125431B2 Method of growing germanium crystals ...

(d) controlling the diameter of a crystal of germanium drawn from said first crucible at a rate controlled by a load scale that monitors the weight of the crystal; and (f) removing the lid from the quartz shield to permit withdrawl of the germanium crystal from the melt container.

High Purity Germanium, a Review on Principle Theories and ...

Since the early 1950’s the use of Germanium has been continuously growing as new applications are being developed. Its first commercial usage as the main material, from which the semiconductors were made, was later replaced by Silicon. ... Taishi, T., et al., (2010) CzochralskiGrowth of Germanium Crystals Containing High Concentrations of ...

Germanium: From Its Discovery to SiGe Devices

Germanium: From Its Discovery to SiGe Devices Haller ... Abstract Germanium, element 32, was discovered in 1886 by Clemens Winkler. Its first broad application was in the form of point contact Schottky diodes for radar reception during ... LarkHorovitz’s choice of germanium as the rectifier crystal shows exceptional

Method of growth of mono crystals out of isotope enriched ...

The invention relates to the technology of growing crystals and the development of a method of growing single crystals isotopologues silicon 28 Si 29 Si 30 Si, which are used in semiconductor technology, microelectronics, etc. Using single crystals isotopologues silicon opens up new areas of applications.